Why is impervious area used to determine a property's stormwater utility fee?

The amount of impervious surface on a property is the single most important factor affecting the amount of water flowing off a property, how quickly that water flows off a property, and the amount of pollution picked up by the water from that property. Because of this, basing stormwater utility fees on the impervious area on a property is one of the most common methods used to determine stormwater utility fees in North Carolina. The City of Durham is one of more than 30 North Carolina municipalities that base their stormwater utility fees on the amount of impervious area on a property. 

North Carolina Stormwater Fees Page.

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1. Why is impervious area used to determine a property's stormwater utility fee?
2. What is considered an impervious surface?
3. How is the amount of impervious area on my property calculated?
4. What if I disagree with the amount of impervious area listed on my bill?
5. Why are there tiers for the residential stormwater utility fees?
6. What are the tiers?